JavaScript Tip of the Week for November 25, 1996: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Cookies | 2 | WebReference

JavaScript Tip of the Week for November 25, 1996: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Cookies | 2

JavaScript Tip of the Weekfor November 25, 1996: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Cookies




Every time you come to this tip, it is going to remember your name. Have I used some secret, undocument JavaScript feature to do this? Nope, just the Cookie. The Cookie, which is a part of Netscape and Internet Explorer, is a small file filled with little tidbits of information. It is secure, easy to use, and possibly the only practical way to store data over long periods of time using JavaScript.

There are two functions (three if you want to delete) that you need to be able to write to and read from a browser's Cookie. The most prevalent code out their is Bill Dortch's, but for the sake of this tip I wrote my own functions. These functions, which only access the cookie once per call, are twice as fast as Dortch's. See for yourself. I say this only because if you are currently using a lot of Cookies in your site, you might want to switch to these faster more efficient functions. For now, you will not need to understand exactly how these functions work, but you will need to know how to use them. The first function is used to save to a cookie:
    function setCookie (name, value, expires) {
        if (!expires) expires = new Date();
    document.cookie = name + "=" + escape (value) +     <-- save cookie value
    "; expires=" + expires.toGMTString() +  "; path=/"; <-- set expiration date
    }                                                       and universal path
If you are a little confused with how this function works, don't worry. It is more important that you understand how it is used to save information. For instance, if you want to save someone's first name (such as Bob) to a cookie called "_name", these three lines are all you need:
        var expdate = new Date ();
        expdate.setTime (expdate.getTime() + (1000 * 60 * 60 * 24 * 31));
        setCookie ("_name", "Bob", expdate);
First this function gives the cookie an expiration date (how long it will exist before it is erased) of one month. The one month is set by multiplying 1000 milliseconds by 60 seconds by 60 minutes by 24 hours by 31 days (say that ten times fast). If you want to save the cookie for a year, change the 31 to a 365. All cookies must have an expiration date, and a month is plenty of time. If you specify no expiration date, then the cookie will only last through the current browser session. So, setCookie() is run: It creates a cookie called "_name", sets the value of the Cookie to "Bob", and sets the expiration date to 31 days.

To read data off of the Cookie, use this more elaborate function:
    function getCookie (name) {
    var dcookie = document.cookie; 
    var cname = name + "=";
    var clen = dcookie.length;
    var cbegin = 0;
        while (cbegin 
This function searches through the Cookie until it finds the Cookie name that you specify. Then it finds the value of the Cookie and returns it. To get the Cookie that was saved with "Bob's" name in it, "_name", you would use a simple line of code like this:
    document.write(getCookie("_name"));
This would print out the value of the "_name" cookie, which was set to "Bob". If you wanted to print out the value of some other cookie, you would just use it's name in place of "_name". You can give the value of a cookie to a variable, allowing you to manipulate the values and create programs that can save and load information. But keep in mind that you will need to include both functions: setCookie() and getCookie(), to do anything with the cookies.

Finally, if you wish to erase a Cookie that you set, use this simple function and pass it the name of the doomed Cookie. However, you can only delete (as well as get and set) a cookie that was created in your domain. That's simply a saftey precaution; to make sure we don't go around "stealing each other's cookies".
    function delCookie (name) {
    var expireNow = new Date();
    document.cookie = name + "=" +
    "; expires=Thu, 01-Jan-70 00:00:01 GMT" +  "; path=/";
    }
Now read on and learn some creative ways to use Cookies...

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