XHTML 1.1 - Module-based XHTML (1/2) - exploring XML
XHTML 1.1 - Module-based XHTML
On April 6 XHTML 1.1 became a W3C Proposed Recommendation. XHTML is a reformulation of HTML 4 in XML, and version 1.1 is a refinement of the strict variant of XHTML 1.0.
The XHTML 1.1 document type is a fully functional document type with rich semantics. It is not, however, as varied in functionality as the XHTML 1.0 Transitional or Frameset document types. These document types defined many presentational components that are better handled through style sheets or other similar mechanisms. Moreover, since the XHTML 1.1 document type is based exclusively upon the facilities defined in the XHTML modules, it does not contain any of the deprecated functionality of XHTML 1.0 nor of HTML 4. Despite these exceptions, or perhaps because of them, the XHTML 1.1 document type is a solid basis for future document types that are targeted at varied user agent environments.
What is XHTML Modularization?
XHTML Modularization is a decomposition of XHTML 1.0, and by reference HTML 4, into a collection of abstract modules that provide specific types of functionality. These abstract modules are implemented in this specification using the XML Document Type Definition language, but an implementation using XML Schemas is expected. The rules for defining the abstract modules, and for implementing them using XML DTDs, are also defined in this document.
These modules may be combined with each other and with other modules to create XHTML subset and extension document types that qualify as members of the XHTML-family of document types.
Why Modularize XHTML?
The modularization of XHTML refers to the task of specifying well-defined sets of XHTML elements that can be combined and extended by document authors, document type architects, other XML standards specifications, and application and product designers to make it economically feasible for content developers to deliver content on a greater number and diversity of platforms.
Over the last couple of years, many specialized markets have begun looking to HTML as a content language. There is a great movement toward using HTML across increasingly diverse computing platforms. Currently there is activity to move HTML onto mobile devices (hand held computers, portable phones, etc.), television devices (digital televisions, TV-based Web browsers, etc.), and appliances (fixed function devices). Each of these devices has different requirements and constraints.
Modularizing XHTML provides a means for product designers to specify which elements are supported by a device using standard building blocks and standard methods for specifying which building blocks are used. These modules serve as "points of conformance" for the content community. The content community can now target the installed base that supports a certain collection of modules, rather than worry about the installed base that supports this or that permutation of XHTML elements. The use of standards is critical for modularized XHTML to be successful on a large scale. It is not economically feasible for content developers to tailor content to each and every permutation of XHTML elements. By specifying a standard, either software processes can autonomously tailor content to a device, or the device can automatically load the software required to process a module.
Modularization also allows for the extension of XHTML's layout and presentation capabilities, using the extensibility of XML, without breaking the XHTML standard. This development path provides a stable, useful, and implementable framework for content developers and publishers to manage the rapid pace of technological change on the Web.
Produced by Michael Claßen
Created: Apr 16, 2001
Revised: Apr 16, 2001